The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states - Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK.
The Council of Europe is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states. It "brings together governments from across Europe - and beyond - to agree minimum legal standards in a wide range of areas". It also monitors how well countries apply the standards that they have chosen to sign up to. It also provides technical assistance, often working together with the European Union, to help them do so.
In today's highly technology-driven world, borders are no longer boundaries to the flow of information and communications. Increasingly, criminals are located in places other than where their acts produce their effects. Since domestic laws are primarily confined to a specific territory, cyber crimes can be effectively handled by international law such as The Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime and its Protocol on Xenophobia and Racism.
- Convention on cybercrime & Protocol on Xenophobia and Racism
- Council Framework Decision of 28 May 2001 on combating fraud and counterfeiting of non-cash means of payment
- Directive on on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography
- European Investigation Order in criminal matters
- Directive on attacks against information systems